Stone Masonry- Types, Materials Required, Advantages & Disadvantages, Difference Between Stone & Brick Masonry
Stone Masonry is a traditional construction technology in this masonry, stone and mortar are used for the construction of buildings.
This traditional construction technology is used to construct the foundations, walls, columns, and other similar components of the structure.
Materials Required For Stone Masonry
There are two types of materials are required for stone masonry :
Stones are the main material that is used in stone masonry and the selection of the stones are depends on the strength and availability of the stones.
Before the use of different types of stones in the stone masonry, the stones must be free from the defect such as shake, vent, mottle, etc.
Mortar is basically working as a binding material that keeps the stones in position.
Mortar is prepared by the mixing of cement, sand, and water.
The selection of mortar for stone masonry depends upon the strength required, load coming on the structure, and many more factors.
Classification of Stone Masonry
The stone masonry is broadly divided into two parts :
- Rubble Masonry
- Ashlar Masonry
In the rubble masonry construction, we used stones that have irregular sizes and do not have a uniform thickness.
The stones are first obtained from the quarry after that make a suitable shape and size by using the hammer and then finally we are going to use the stone in the stone masonry construction.
For any good structure, the strength is so important, and in the case of rubble masonry, strength is also important and strength depends on the three factors :
- Mortar Quality
- Use of Long Through Stones
- Proper Filling of Mortar Between the Spaces of Stones
The rubble masonry is further divided into six parts:
- Coursed Rubble Masonry
- Uncoursed Rubble Masonry
- Random Rubble Masonry
- Dry Rubble Masonry
- Polygonal Rubble Masonry
- Flint Rubble Masonry
Coursed Rubble Masonry
In the coursed rubble masonry work first, the stones are selected before the work is going to start and after that, the coursed rubble masonry is carried out.
In the coursed rubble masonry work the height of the stone is the same in the particular courses.
The coursed rubble masonry is used for the construction of public buildings, residential buildings, etc.
In the coursed rubble masonry the height of the stones may vary from 50 mm to 200 mm.
The coursed rubble masonry is further divided into three parts :
- Coursed Rubble Masonry 1 Sort
- Coursed Rubble Masonry 2 Sort
- Coursed Rubble Masonry 3 Sort
Coursed Rubble Masonry 1 Sort
In the coursed rubble masonry 1 sort, the stones of the same height are going to use.
The thickness of the mortar joint in coursed rubble masonry 1 sort does not exceed 10 mm.
In this masonry, the courses are also of the same heights.
Coursed Rubble Masonry 2 Sort
The stones of different heights are used in the coursed rubble masonry 2 sorts and there is no need for equal height of courses.
In this masonry work, there is a need for only two stones to make up the height of one course.
The thickness of the mortar joint in the coursed rubble masonry 2 sort is 12 mm.
Coursed Rubble Masonry 3 Sort
In the coursed rubble masonry 3 sorts, the thickness of the mortar joint is 16 mm.
For making the height of one course we need only three stones in the coursed rubble masonry 3 sorts.
In this masonry, the height of courses also need not be of equal heights.
Uncoursed Rubble Masonry
In the uncoursed rubble masonry, the stones are directly used as they obtain from the quarry without any dressed, except knocking out some corners of stones.
Uncoursed rubble masonry types of constructions are economical.
The uncoursed rubble masonry is used for the construction of compound walls, Godowns, Garages, Labour Quarters, etc.
In this masonry construction method first, the larger stones are put and the spaces between the stones are filled up with spalls or snecks.
Random Rubble Masonry
For the construction of the Random Rubble Masonry, a good skill is required.
In the Random Rubble Masonry, we use stones of irregular sizes and shapes and these stones are arranged in such a way that it gives a better appearance.
The use of random rubble masonry in the construction of the residential buildings, compound walls, godowns, etc.
The main difference between coursed rubble masonry and random rubble masonry is, in coursed rubble masonry stones in particular courses are of equal heights whereas in random rubble masonry stones have different heights.
The random rubble masonry is further divided into two parts :
- Random Rubble Masonry 1 Sort
- Random Rubble Masonry 2 Sort
Random Rubble Masonry 1 Sort
If the thickness of the mortar joint does not exceed 6 mm and the stones are dressed by chisel, then this type of masonry work is known as Random Rubble Masonry 1 Sort.
Random Rubble Masonry 2 Sort
If the thickness of the mortar joint does not exceed 12 mm and the stones are dressed by a hammer, then this type of masonry work is known as Random Rubble masonry 2 Sort.
Dry Rubble Masonry
Dry rubble masonry is masonry without mortar joints. a type of rubble masonry in which
Dry Rubble Masonry is an economical construction but for this masonry construction, we need advanced skilled people.
The dry rubble masonry is suitable for the construction of retaining walls, compound walls, pitching on the bridge approaches, etc.
The main difference between dry rubble masonry and random rubble masonry is, in dry rubble masonry we do not use mortar joint but in random rubble masonry, we use mortar joint.
Polygonal Rubble Masonry
In the polygonal Rubble Masonry, we use stones of irregular polygonal shapes.
Due to the irregular shapes of stones, it is very difficult to arrange the stone in order to get a good appearance.
The stones which are using in the polygonal rubble masonry are hammer-dressed.
Flint Rubble Masonry
The definition of flint rubble masonry is when we use extremely hard and irregularly shaped nodules of silica stones in the masonry work then this type of masonry work is called flint rubble masonry.
In the flint rubble masonry, stones are brittle and the face may be arranged in coursed or uncoursed manner.
Ashlar Masonry is part of stone masonry in which square or rectangular stones are used for construction.
In ashlar masonry, the courses are not necessarily of the same height.
Ashlar masonry is further divided into the following five parts :
- Ashlar Fine Masonry
- Ashlar Rough-tooled Masonry
- Ashlar Rock or Quarry Faced Masonry
- Ashlar Chamfered Masonry
- Ashlar Block-in-Course Masonry
Ashlar Fine Masonry
Ashlar fine masonry is a costly masonry in which the beds, sides, and faces are finely dressed by chisels.
In the Ashlar fine masonry, the thickness of the mortar joint does not exceed 3 mm.
Ashlar Rough-tooled Masonry
The ashlar rough-tooled masonry is also known as the bastard ashlar in this masonry work the thickness of the mortar joint does not exceed 6 mm.
In the ashlar rough-tool masonry the bed and the sides are dressed by chisel.
Ashlar Rock or Quarry Faced Masonry
This type of masonry gives a great appearance. In this, a trip around 25 mm wide made by the chisel is provided around the perimeter of stones.
Ashlar Chamfered Masonry
Ashlar chamfered masonry gives a neat appearance to the grooved joints.
In the ashlar chamfered masonry the sides are chamfered or bevelled at an angle of 45 degrees by using the chisel.
Ashlar Block-in-Course Masonry
The ashlar block in course masonry is an intermediate position between the rubble masonry and the ashlar masonry.
This type of masonry is used in heavy engineering works such as retaining walls, sea walls, etc.
Stone Masonry Advantages
Using stone masonry in the construction of any building gives many following advantages:
- The stone masonry is stronger than the brickwork.
- We can develop a better architectural effect by using the stone work.
- The stone possesses high crushing strength so we can use it in the construction of piers, docks, dams etc.
- The stones having good quality offers attractive texture and hence no finishing will be required.
- The places where the stones are easily available, the stone work is cheaper.
Stone Masonry Disadvantages
- Stone masonry is more costly than brick masonry.
- More skilled labours are required for the construction of stone masonry compared to brick masonry.
- We need heavy tools for the lifting of the stone.
- The moulding of stones in any desirable shape is very expensive than bricks.
- Stone masonry required extra cost labour for the dressing of the stones.
Difference Between Stone Masonry and Brick Masonry
|Stone Masonry||Brick Masonry|
|Stone masonry is more costly.||Brick masonry is less costly than stone masonry.|
|More skilled labour is required for the construction of Stone masonry.||Less skilled labours are required for brick masonry construction.|
|Heavy tools are required for the lifting of the stones.||Does not require any heavy tools for lifting the bricks.|
|The stone is less fire-resistant than brick.||Bricks are more fire-resistant than stone.|
|It required extra cost labour for the dressing of the stones.||The brick does not require any extra cost labour for dressing because it is of regular size and shape.|
|In stone masonry, we do not construct a wall of thickness less than 300 mm.||In the brick masonry, we do construct the wall having a thickness less than 300 mm|
|The moulding of stones in any shape is very expensive.||The moulding of brick in any shape is less expensive than stones.|
|Does not easy to construct connections and openings in the stonework.||We easily construct the connections and openings in the brickwork.|
|The mortar joint is not thin in the stonework.||The mortar joint is thin in brickwork compare to stonework.|
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
The meaning of masonry in construction is the art of building the structures in either stones or bricks.
Stonemasonry is a type of building construction in which we are using stone and mortar.