Technical Terms in Stone Masonry
In stone masonry, there is a lot of technical terms. Here are the following terms:
- Natural Bed
- String Course
- Lacing Course
- Through Stone
- Skew Corbet
Natural Bed In Stone Masonry
Natural Bed in stone masonry is defined as the plane of stone along which the stone can easily be split is known as the Natural Bed.
In the stone masonry, the natural bed is perpendicular to the direction of the pressure.
Sill In Stone Masonry
Sill in the stone masonry is defined as the bottom surface of a door or a window opening is known as a sill.
Sills are arranged in such a way that, they prevent the entering of the water into the house.
Corbel In Stone Masonry
Corbel in stone masonry is defined as the projection stones for the support of roof truss, beam, weather shed, etc.
In the stonework, the Corbel should extend at least 2/3 of their length into the wall.
Course In Stone Masonry
The course is basically a layer of stones and the thickness of the course is equal to the thickness of the stone.
Cornice In Stone Masonry
The definition of the Cornice in stone masonry is a course of the stone that is provided at the top of the wall.
Coping In Stone Masonry
In the stonework, the coping is a course of the stone provided at the top of the building to protect the wall from the rainwater.
Weathering In Stone Masonry
Weathering in the stonework is nothing but providing a better slope at the top of the stone so that water may flow off easily.
Some time weathering means wearing the action of the weather by stone surfaces.
Throating In Stone Masonry
In the Stonework, the throating is a groove that provided the underside of sills or cornices or coping so that the rainwater easily discharge from the wall surfaces.
Plinth In Stone Masonry
In the stonework, the plinth is the height of the ground floor from the ground level.
The main work of the plinth is to protect the interior of the building from rain, water, frost, etc.
String Course In Stone Masonry
In the stone masonry work, a string course is provided between the cornice and the plinth horizontally.
Lacing Course In Stone Masonry
The Lacing course is used to provide the strength of irregular small stones wall.
A lacing course is a horizontal course that is provided either in the brick masonry form or stone masonry form.
Spalls In Stone Masonry
When we use the chips of stones to fill up the empty space in the stone masonry then this process is known as the Spalls or Snecks in stone masonry.
Through Stone In Stone Masonry
Through stone or the bond stones, are those stones that are placed at regular intervals across the wall.
The main work of the through stones is to stop the entry of moisture through the wall.
Jambs In Stone Masonry
Jambs are the side of window openings, doors openings, etc.
Reveals In Stone Masonry
Reveals are the vertical exposed surfaces at 90 degrees to the door or window frames.
Heads In Stone Masonry
Heads in the stone masonry are the horizontal stones that are provided at top of the doors or windows.
Stoolings In Stone Masonry
Stoolings are the horizontal seatings provided to receive the jambs and mullions.
Label In Stone Masonry
Label in window or arch is a projecting course.
Apex In Stone Masonry
Apex is coping that is provided at the summit of a gable wall.
Skew Corbel In Stone Masonry
The corbel provided below a gable coping is known as a skew corbel.
Hearting In Stone Masonry
Hearting is the portion of the wall situated between facing and backing.
Backing In Stone Masonry
The backing is a material that is used for the formation of the back wall.
Back In Stone Masonry
The back is the interior part of the wall which is not exposed to the weather.
Face In Stone Masonry
The surface of the wall that is exposed to the weather is known as the face.
Facing In Stone Masonry
The material which is used in the face of the wall is known as the facing.
Joints In Stone Masonry
The main work of joints in the Stone Masonry work is to hold the stones with each other.
There are 9 joints that are used in stone masonry :
- Butt or Square Joint.
- Rebated or Lapped Joint.
- Tongued and Grooved Joint.
- Tabled Joint.
- Saddled or Water Joint.
- Rusticated Joint.
- Plugged Joint.
- Dowelled Joint.
- Cramped Joint.
Butt or Square Joint In Stone Masonry
Butt or Square joints are the most extensively used for ordinary work in stone construction.
In the butt joint stone masonry, the square surface of one stone is placed against the other square surface of the stone.
Rebated or Lapped Joint In Stone Masonry
We use the rebated joint or lapped joint in the stone masonry where the movement of the stones is restricted.
The length of the rebated or lapped joint should not be less than 70 mm.
The use of the rebated or lapped joint in the construction of the arch, coping on gables, etc.
Tongued and Grooved Joint In Stone Masonry
Tongued and Grooved joints are rarely used in stone masonry construction due to more labour expenses.
In this joint, a projection is kept on one stone and a corresponding sinking is provided on the other stone.
The tongued and grooved joint in stone masonry also provides restrictions on slides of one stone over another stone.
Tabled Joint In Stone Masonry
The Table joint in stonework is used where the lateral pressure is more such as the structure of the sea wall.
To prevent the lateral movement of the stone we create a joggle in the bed of the stone.
In the table joint the width of the projection is about one-third of the breadth of the stone and the depth of the projection is about 40 mm.
Saddled or Water Joint In Stone Masonry
The main use of the saddled or water joint in stone masonry is to protect the joints of the cornices as we can see in the figure below.
By using the saddled joint in stone masonry we can easily divert the movement of water on the weathered surface from the joints.
The stone is rounded off in the saddled or water joint stone masonry work.
Rusticated Joint In Stone Masonry
In this joint, a sinking is provided at the lower joint to avoid the possibility of entry of water through the mortar joint.
The rusticated joints are basically of three types in stonework first is the Channelled Joint second is Vee joint and the last one is Vee and Channelled joint.
Out of three, the channelled joint is more common to be used.
Plugged Joint in Stone Masonry
In the plugged joint in stone masonry, we provide dovetail-shaped mortices on the sides of adjacent stones.
The plugged joint in stone masonry is used for the copings, cornices, etc.
Dowelled Joint in Stone Masonry
In the dowelled joint in stone masonry, a hole is cut into each stone, and loose dowels are inserted and secured with the cement.
When dowelled joint, adopted for columns, is known as a bed plug.
The dowelled joint can be easily used in place of joggled joints.
Cramped Joint in Stone Masonry
In this cramped joint, the cramps are used instead of dowels.
The cramps are placed in position, grouted, and covered with cement, lead, or asphalt.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
What are the uses of the string course in stone masonry?
The main use of the string course in the stone masonry is to throw off the rainwater from the wall surface.
In stone masonry, the through stone is also known as?
In stone masonry through stone is also known as the Bond Stones.
In stone masonry, the head is also known as?
The head is also known as the Lintels in the stone masonry work.
The Label is also known as?
The label is also known as the drip stone.
In stone masonry, the apex is also known as?
Apex is also known as the summit stone.
What are the different types of joints in stone masonry?
Here is the list of joints in stone masonry:
Butt or square joint.
Rebated or lapped joint.
Tongued and grooved joint.
Saddled or water joint.
Butt joint in the stone masonry is also known as?
The butt joint in the stone masonry is also known as the square joint.
Rebated joint in the stone masonry is also known as?
Rebated joint in the stone masonry is also known as Lapped Joint.
The tongued and grooved joint in stone masonry is also known as?
The tongued and grooved joint in stone masonry is also known as Joggle Joint.
The saddled joint in stone masonry is also known as?
The saddled joint in stone masonry is also known as the Water Joint.