Components of Building Structure | Functional Requirements of Buildings
For making a building we use many different types of buildings components like Foundation, Plinth, Superstructure, Doors, etc.
Important Components of Building Structure
Here is the list of the main important components of building structure that is used for the construction of any type of building.
- Weather Sheds
- Windows and Ventilators
- Damp Proof Course (DPC)
The foundation of any building construction is an important part of the building because it transfers the building load to the soil.
It is the lowest part of the building under the earth’s surface and foundation also known as the substructure of the building.
While designing the foundation of a building the care should be taken because most of the failure happens due to the faulty design of the foundation.
The plinth is located between the substructure (foundation) and the superstructure of the building.
The plinth is constructed above ground level and the height of the plinth is depended on the architectural elevation, ground level, etc.
At the top of the plinth usually coping, damp proof course (DPC) is provided.
The superstructure is the part of the building above the plinth level.
Walls are the components of a building which is used to enclose or divide the floors.
The wall provides security, privacy, weather resistance, fire resistance, etc.
The walls can be constructed by using different types of brick, concrete blocks, different types of stones, etc.
In the building, columns are the vertical members which are constructed above the ground level.
The main work of the columns is to transfer the building load to the foundation and the foundation transfer the load to the soil.
The main work of the floors is, it divides the buildings into different levels and provides more space for living in that building.
Window sills are provided above the top of the wall and below the bottom of the window.
The lintels in the building are constructed above the opening of the doors, windows, and ventilators in the wall.
The main work of lintels is to hold the weight of the wall above the openings.
The lintels are constructed with reinforced cement concrete.
Weathersheds in the buildings are also known as the chhajjas and the chhajjas are combined with lintels.
The main use of the weather sheds or chhajjas is to protect doors, windows, ventilators from natural activities like rain, wind, frost, etc.
The doors in the building or house provide the free movement of the people or goods inside and outside the building.
Main use of the doors is it connects one room with the other rooms and it also provides security because the doors have a lock system.
Windows And Ventilators
In any buildings or house, windows and ventilators are provided for the proper lighting and fresh air to come into the rooms.
Roofs in the building or houses are the uppermost part of the building or house which gives protection to the building from the rain, heat, snow, wind, etc.
Read More: What Is Roof? | Types Of Roofs | Terminology Of Roofs | Requirements of Good Roof
Also Read: Types Of Pitched Roofs | Roof Covering For Pitched Roofs
The stairs in the building are used as to mean of transportation between one floor to another floor of the building.
Instead of the stairs we also use the lifts, ramps, and escalators to connect one floor to another floor.
Read More: Various Parts Of Stair, Different Types Of Materials Used To Make Stairs, Types Of Stairs, Requirements For Good Stairs
Damp Proof Course (DPC)
Dampness in the building is a universal problem and to prevent this problem we use DPC as a layer of waterproofing material at the plinth level.
In brief, the damp-proof course prevents superstructure from the water.
The plastering is applied to the wall for covering the unevenness of the wall surface and give a good appearance.
Functional Requirements of Buildings
For a good building here is the 8 functional requirements that make a building good in every aspect:
- Light and Ventilation
- Sound Insulation
- Strength And Stability
- Fire Protection
- Comfort And Convenience
- Thermal Insulation
For the building or house, durability means a time up to which a house or building is habitable for living.
The durability of any building depends on many factors like what kind of materials are going to be used for the construction of buildings, what kind of method of construction is adopted, etc.
We can increase the durability of buildings by providing proper DPC, coping, sills, etc in the building to prevent the wall from rainfall, sunlight, moisture, etc, and through proper care of the building, we can also increase the durability of the building.
Durability is the main functional requirement for a good building because it defines the life cycle of any building.
The economy is important for the construction of any building without an economy we can not proceed for the construction.
The construction of any building must be economical in every aspect like functional planning, designing, maintenance, etc.
Light And Ventilation
Construction of every building in such a way that every room in the building is positioned at the right place so the fresh air and proper light easily come into all the rooms.
The number and size of the windows and doors must be sufficient.
For a good building, ventilation must be considered so there is no restriction for the passage of free clean air in the building.
In any building, if there is not a proper system of ventilation provided then the quantity of carbon dioxide increases, and it creat problems in breathing.
The word sound insulation must be considered while constructing the buildings.
Construction of buildings by using sound insulation technique means the building reduces the sound passing through the building walls.
We can make the building sound-insulated by using hard materials, cavity walls, hollow floors over structural floors, hollow walls, insulating materials, sound-absorbent materials for example fiberboards, mineral wool, etc.
Strength And Stability
While constructing a building we should focus on the strength and stability of the building structure and we have to ensure that the building structure resists all types of load that are dead load, live load, wind load, etc.
To make a building fireproof we have to use composite and non-combustible materials for the construction of buildings walls.
In the buildings, we have to provide fire exit doors or windows so that the people easily can leave the building in fire situations.
Comfort And Convenience
Peoples build their houses for their comfort and convenience so the main priority while constructing the buildings are comfort and convenience.
We can make a building comfortable and convenient for living by providing the proper exposure of lighting during the day, linking the rooms in such a manner so anyone can easily go from one room to another room, etc.
If a building is thermally insulated, it can reduce the electric cost up to 20 to 40 % in the summer as well as in the winter.
We can make a building thermal insulated by using the cavity walla as external walls, heat-insulated materials (like slag wool, lightweight concrete, etc), chhajjas, weather sheds, garden, etc.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Here are the 8 functional requirements for good buildings:
Durability, Economy, Light and Ventilations, Sound Insulation, Strength And Stability, Fire protection, Comfort And Convenience, Thermal Insulation.
The Main Components of the building structure are Foundation, Plinth, Superstructure, Walls, Columns, Floors, Sills, Lintels, Windows, Stairs.
Chhajjas are also known as weathersheds.