What is Brick Masonry?
The definition of brick masonry is the placing of bricks on the mortar in a systematic manner to create a structure that sustains the exerted load.
The term masonry indicates the art of building structures in either brickwork or stonework.
The masonry work in its self is the most important traditional technology, even if there are a lot of new materials of construction are adopted.
The uses of brick masonry in the construction of foundations, walls, columns, and other similar structures.
Technical Terms Used In Brick Masonry
Here are the 18 lists of the technical terms, which is used in brick masonry :
- Stretcher Course
- Bed Joint
- Squint Quoint
- Racking Back
In brick masonry or in stone masonry the course is the horizontal layer of bricks of stones.
In the brick masonry, the stretcher is the longest side of the brick which is put parallel to the face of the work.
In the brick masonry work, the course containing the stretcher is known as the stretcher course.
The header is a brick that is put with its width parallel to the face or direction of the wall.
The course which is containing headers is called a header course.
In the brick, arrises are the point where the plane surfaces of the bricks intersect with each other.
The bed indicates the lower part of brick in each layer when the brick is put on the course.
In the brick masonry, the bed joint is the horizontal layer of mortar where the brick is going to be put.
Lap in the brick masonry is defined as the horizontal distance between the vertical joints of successive courses.
For a good bond between the brick and the mortar, the lap should be one-fourth of the length of a brick.
Perpends in the brick masonry are the vertical joints that separate the bricks either in length or cross direction wise.
In brick masonry work, for achieving a good bond, the perpends in the alternate courses or horizontal layers should be below each other.
In the brick masonry work, closer is a piece of brick that is prepared by a mason with the edge of the trowel.
The closer is used to close up the bond at the end of the brick course.
Closer in the brick masonry is further divided into the following four parts :
- Queen Closer In Brick Masonry
- King Closer In Brick Masonry
- Bevelled Closer In Brick Masonry
- Mitred Closer In Brick Masonry
Queen Closer In Brick Masonry
We can easily obtain the queen closer by cutting the different types of bricks longitudinally in two equal parts.
Without wasting the quarter bricks, we can also obtain the queen closer by adding the two-quarter bricks.
The queen closer is used near the quoin header to obtain the necessary lap.
King Closer In Brick Masonry
King closer is made by cutting a triangular portion from the brick.
The triangular portion must include the half header and half stretcher while cutting the brick on the adjoining faces.
The king closer is used near the windows and doors openings for the proper arrangement of the mortar joint.
Bevelled Closer In Brick Masonry
Bevelled closer is made by cutting a triangular portion from the brick.
The triangular portion must include the full length and half-width of the brick. The bevelled closer is used in the splayed brickwork.
When we see the bevelled closer its looks closer on one face and header at the other face.
Mitred Closer In Brick Masonry
Mitred closer is made by cutting a triangular portion from the brick.
The triangular portion must include the full width and making an angle of 45 degrees to 60 degrees with the length of the brick.
Mitred closers are used at corners and junctions.
Bat is defined as a broken piece of bricks and it is related to the length of a brick.
Related to the length, bats are commonly three types, the first is the Half Bat, the second is the Three Quarter Bat, and the last one is Bevelled Bat.
A brick that is molded with a rounded angle is termed a bullnose. Bullnose is used for the rounded quoin.
Double bullnose brick is known as cownose.
When a brick is cut or moulded in such a way that the cut or moulded brick makes an angle other than 90 degrees in the plane is known as squint quoin.
Toothing in the construction is a process of providing the extension of bricks in the alternate courses.
The toothing is provided to better connect the wall, when the wall is continued in the future.
The frog on the brick is a depth on the face of the brick, that is provided for the better holding the mortar with the bricks.
The depth of the frog on the brick is about 10 mm to 20 mm.
The number of the frogs on the bricks is varied on the basis of bricks like wire cut bricks have no frog, hand made bricks have one frog, and pressed brick has two frogs.
In brick masonry, the termination of the wall in a stepped manner is known as the racking back.
In brick masonry, the external corners or angles of a wall surface are called quoins.
What are Different Types of Bonds in Brick Masonry?
In brickwork, we used many types of bonds to make a wall better in strength as well as in appearance.
Here are the 10 different types of bonds which is using in the brickwork.
- Stretcher Bond
- Header Bond
- English Bond
- Flemish Bond
- Garden-Wall Bond
- Raking Bond
- Dutch Bond
- Brick-On-Edge Bond
- English Cross Bond
- Facing Bond
What is Stretcher Bond in Brickwork?
In the construction of a wall when we arrange all the bricks in such a manner that the only stretcher ( length of brick) is showing then that type of bond is known as stretcher bond.
The main function of the stretcher bond is to provides good bonding between the bricks in wall construction.
Basically, stretcher bonds are suitable for only one-brick partition walls because the one-brick partition wall does not need any header.
The stretcher bond is not suitable for the wall which has thicknesses greater than one brick wall because the stretcher bond is not developed a better internal bonding.
What is Header Bond in Brickwork?
The definition of header bond in civil engineering is, when we arrange all the bricks in header (width) courses then that type of bond is known as header bond in brick masonry or brickwork.
Header bond in brickwork is suitable for curved surfaces and the construction of walls of full brick thickness.
The header bonds are not suitable for the load-bearing walls because these types of bonds do not have any strength to transmit the pressure.
In the header bonding, the overlap is kept equal to half the width of brick and for this, we use three-quarter brickbats in each alternate course.
The main difference between the header bond and the stretcher bond is, header bonds only contains header courses whereas stretcher bond only contains stretcher courses.
What is English Bond in Brickwork?
The definition of English bond in brickwork is, when we arrange bricks in such a manner, that one course having header-only and above or below course having stretchers only, is known as English bond.
The main advantages of using English bond in the construction are, they are the strongest bond in brickwork, that make walls stronger than other bond and it has a pretty good appearance.
Features of an English Bond in Brick Masonry
- In the English Bond the courses consist alternate headers and stretchers.
- For developing face lap in english bond, the queen closer is put next to the quoin header.
- Every header is centrally place above or belove the stretcher.
- The joints of bricks in same course are straigth.
- In header course, mortar joints are double than stretcher course.
- In English bond the header courses should not start with the queen closer.
- Queen closer is not required in the stretcher courses.
- The stretcher have minimum lap of 1/4th of their lenght over header.
What is Flemish Bond in Brickwork?
The definition of Flemish bond in civil engineering is when we arrange the brick in such a manner that header and stretchers are placed alternatively in every course, known as Flemish Bond.
In Flemish bond, every header is placed centrally over or below the stretcher, and in this type of bond, short vertical joints are formed.
For the developing the face lap in Flemish bond we have to put the queen closer next to the quoin header in alternate courses.
Constructing a wall with a Flemish bond required more skill than constructing a wall with an English bond.
Flemish bonds are further divided into two parts:
- Single Flemish Bond
- Double Flemish Bond
What is Single Flemish Bond in Brick Masonry?
In brick masonry work the single flemish bond is consists of Flemish Bond and English Bond.
While using the single flemish bond for constructing a wall, we combine the strength of the English bond and the appearance of the Flemish bond.
A single Flemish bond can not be used for a wall having a thickness of less than 3/2 bricks.
The single flemish bond is used when the expensive bricks are used for face work.
What is Double Flemish Bond in Brick Masonry?
In the double flemish bond, the header and stretchers are alternatively placed in every course.
The double flemish bond gives a better appearance than the English bond but it does not stronger than the English bond.
The double flemish bond is used, where a better appearance of the wall is required.
What is Garden-Wall Bond in Brick Masonry?
The definition of Garden-Wall bond in the brick masonry is, the wall which is one brick wall, and the height of these walls do not greater than two meters.
The Garden-Wall Bond is used for the construction of the boundary walls, compound walls, garden walls, etc.
The garden wall bond is constructing in two manners:
- English Garden Wall Bond
- Flemish Garden Wall Bond
What is English Garden Wall Bond in Brick Masonry?
The definition of English Garden Wall Bond is a wall having one header course after three or five stretcher courses.
The main difference between the English garden wall bond and the English bond is, English garden wall bond has one header course after 3 or 5 stretcher courses whereas in the English bond alternate courses consist of stretchers and headers.
What is Flemish Garden Wall Bond in Brick Masonry?
The Flemish Garden Wall Bond is the wall that contains one header to three or five stretchers in every course.
Flemish garden wall bond is also known as Scotch Bond or Sussex Bond.
In the Flemish Garden Wall Bond if each course contains one header to two stretchers, then these types of bonds are known as Monk Bond.
The main difference between the Flemish garden wall bond and the Flemish bond is, the flemish garden wall bond has one header to three or five stretchers in every course whereas in the Flemish bond In every course, the headers and stretchers are placed alternatively.
What is Raking Bond in Brick Masonry?
The definition of the Raking bond in construction is, the courses which are inclined is known as raking bond.
In the raking bond, the inclination in alternate courses should be in opposite directions.
The raking bond is only provided in the stretcher courses having a thickness equal to the even number of the half brick.
The Raking bond is further divided into three parts:
- Diagonal Bond
- Herring-Bone Bond
- Zig-Zag Bond
In the diagonal bond wall, the bricks are arranged diagonally and the selection of angle of inclination in such a way that there is a minimum breaking of the bricks.
The use of diagonal bonds in the construction is for the constructing of the footing of high walls.
The diagonal bonds are useful for the walls having a thickness of 2 to 4 bricks.
Herring Bone Bond
The Herring Bone bond is arranged at 45 degrees from the center in both directions.
In the brickwork, the herring-bone bonds are used for walls having a thickness of more than four bricks and are also useful for making ornamental panels in flooring bricks.
In the Zig-Zag bond, the bricks are arranged in zig-zag manner.
The zig-zag bonds are useful for making ornamental panels in the flooring of bricks.
What is Dutch bond in Brick Masonry?
Dutch bond in the brick masonry is the modification of the English bond.
The main use of the dutch bond is, it increases the strength of the wall corner.
In the dutch bond, alternatively, courses of header and stretcher are arranged which means one layer of header and one layer of the stretcher are arranged one after another.
What is Brick On-Edge Bond in Brick Masonry?
Brick On-Edge bond is a type of brick bond in which the headers and the stretchers are in alternate courses.
And these headers and stretchers are arranged in such a manner that the header comes at the bed and the stretcher comes at the edge.
In Brick On-Edge bonds, the bricks are laid on the edge and these types of bonds are economical because it consumes less number of brick and mortar.
The Brick On-Edge Bond is a weak bond so it is used to make garden walls, compound walls, partition walls, etc.
The Brick On-Edge bond is also known as the Silvercock’s bond.
What is English Cross Bond in Brick Masonry?
English cross bond is a brick bond in which the headers and stretchers are in alternate courses.
English cross bond is another modification of English Bond.
The main use of English cross bond in brick masonry is to increase the beauty of the appearance of the wall.
The English Cross Bond is also known as the St. Andrews Cross Bond.
The main difference between the English bond and the English cross bond is, the English cross bond is used for the improvement of the appearance of the wall whereas the English bond is strengthened the brickwork.
What is Facing Bond in Brick Masonry?
Facing bond is a type of brick bond in which the header course comes after several stretcher courses.
In the facing bond, the distribution of load is not uniform because it is not structurally good enough.
Difference Between English Bond And Flemish Bond
|English Bond||Flemish Bond|
|English Bond has more strength than the flemish bond.||Flemish Bond does not have more strength than the English bond.|
|English Bond does not have a more pleasing appearance.||Flemish Bond does have a more pleasing appearance.|
|The construction of an English bond does not require any great skill.||Construction of the Flemish bond required additional skill.|
|We do not use broken bricks in English bonds.||We do use broken bricks in Flemish Bond.|
|Alternate courses consist of stretchers and headers.||In every course, the headers and stretchers are placed alternatively.|
Difference Between English Bond and Dutch Bond
|English Bond||Dutch Bond|
|English Bond is not a modified bond.||Dutch bond is a modified form of the English bond.|
|Alternate courses consist of stretchers and headers.||Dutch Bond also consists of stretchers and headers in alternate courses.|
|English bond strengthened brickwork.||Dutch bond strengthened the corner of the wall.|
Difference Between English Bond and Stretcher Bond
|English Bond||Stretcher Bond|
|Alternate courses consist of stretchers and headers.||All the courses consist of only stretchers.|
|English bond is the strongest bond of brickwork.||Stretcher bond is a weak bond of brickwork|
Difference Between Single Flemish Bond and Double Flemish Bond
|Single Flemish Bond||Double Flemish Bond|
|The single Flemish bond is a combination of English and Flemish bonds.||Each course presents the same appearance both in the back and the face of the wall.|
|In course, facing is Flemish and backing is English.||Every course consists of a header and stretchers alternatively.|
Types of Brick Masonry
Types of brickwork depend on many factors like what is the quality of mortar, the quality of bricks, and many more factors.
Brickwork is classified into mainly two parts
- Brick Work In Mud
- Brick Work In Cement
Brickwork In Mud
When we use mud to fill the joints in brickwork, then this type of brickwork is known as brickwork in mud.
The mud mortar is prepared by mixing the clay, soil with water.
The main uses of mud mortar for the cheapest constructions in the village area and the thickness of the mud mortar joint are 12 mm.
The main advantage of mud mortar is, it is the cheapest mortar for construction and it is eco-friendly.
The main disadvantage of mud mortar is it has no high strength so it can not sustain the load of multi-stored buildings.
Brickwork In Cement
When we use cement mortar to fill the joints in brickwork, then this type of brickwork is known as brickwork in cement.
The cement mortar brickwork is furder divided into three parts
- First Class Cement Brickwork
- Second Class Cement Brickwork
- Third Class Cement Brickwork
First Class Cement Brickwork
In the first class cement brickwork, the table molded and burnt in kilns bricks are used which means the brick must be standard brick.
The thickness of the mortar joint in first-class cement brickwork does not exceed 10 mm.
Second Class Cement Brickwork
In the second class of cement brickwork, the ground-molded bricks and it also burnt in kilns are used which have a slightly irregular shape, some cracks on them, and not a sharp edge.
The thickness of the second-class cement mortar joints is 12 mm.
Third Class Cement Brickwork
The third class cement mortar brickwork is similar to the second class cement brickwork but the main difference is the brick that is going to use in third class cement brickwork is burnt in clamps.
Mud Mortar Vs Cement Mortar
|Mud Mortar||Cement Mortar|
|Mud mortar does not have high strength.||Cement mortar does have high strength.|
|Mud mortar is the cheapest mortar.||Cement mortar is expensive than mud mortar.|
|Mud mortar is locally available.||Cement mortar is not locally available.|
|Mud Mortar is eco-friendly.||Cement mortar is not eco-friendly.|
|Mud mortar is not used for the multi stored building.||Cement mortar is used for the multi stored building.|
What are Rules for Good Bonding in Brickwork?
While constructing the wall we should follow the following rule for good bonding.
- In the brickwork the amount of lap should be minimum 1/4 of brick along the lenght of the wall.
- The amount of lap should 1/2 of brick across the thickness of the wall.
- We should used uniform brick in the brickwork so we can esialy get the uniform lap.
- While constructing wall we should put brick in such manner, that verticale joints must along the same perpends.
- The stretchers should be used in the facing.
What are The Purposes of Bonding in Brickwork?
The main purpose of bonding in brickwork is to give strength and a good appearance to the wall.
While constructing any different types of building, if we are not focusing on the bonding between every brick in the brickwork then the wall becomes weaker and collapses at any time.
Defects in Brick Masonry
The brick masonry may develop defects mainly for four reasons:
- Sulphate Attack : Sulphate react with alimina of cement which lead to increase the valume of mortar.
- Shrinkage on Drying :Due to atmospheric heat, water evaporates and brickwork shrinks.
- Crystallization of Salts from Bricks: This defects are known as efflorescence.
- Corrosion of Embededded Fixtures: The iron or steel fixtures may get corroded in presence of dampness.
Frequantly Asked Questions (FAQ)
Where is the queen closer should be placed?
Queen closer is placed near the quoin header to obtain the necessary lap.
What are the different types of the closer in brick masonry?
In brick masonry, the closer is four types:
What is the header bond is known as?
The header bond is also known as the heading bond in brick masonry.
What is the difference between header bond and stretcher bond?
The main difference between the header bond and the stretcher bond is, in the header bond, we arrange the bricks in the header courses, and in the stretcher bond, we arrange the bricks in the stretcher bond.
Why an English bond is stronger than a flemish bond?
The main reason is English Bonds have less number of stretchers than Flemish bonds due to less the number of stretchers in the English bond makes the English bond stronger than a Flemish bond.
What are the advantages of English bonds in brick masonry?
The main advantage of English bonds in brick masonry is they increase the strength, stability, and durability of the brick masonry.